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Prince and the Pauper (Barnes & Noble Classics Series)

Mark Twain

  Table of Contents


  Title Page

  Copyright Page







  I - The Birth of the Prince and the Pauper

  II - Tom’s Early Life

  III - Tom’s Meeting with the Prince

  IV - The Prince’s Troubles Begin

  V - Tom as a Patrician

  VI - Tom Receives Instructions

  VII - Tom’s First Royal Dinner

  VIII - The Question of the Seal

  IX - The River Pageant

  X - The Prince in the Toils

  XI - At Guildhall

  XII - The Prince and His Deliverer

  XIII - The Disappearance of the Prince

  XIV - ”Le Roi est Mort—Vive le Roi”

  XV - Tom as King

  XVI - The State Dinner

  XVII - Foo-foo the First

  XVIII - The Prince with the Tramps

  XIX - The Prince with the Peasants

  XX - The Prince and the Hermit

  XXI - Hendon to the Rescue

  XXII - A Victim of Treachery

  XXIII - The Prince a Prisoner

  XXIV - The Escape

  XXV - Hendon Hall

  XXVI - Disowned

  XXVII - In Prison

  XXVIII - The Sacrifice

  XXIX - To London

  XXX - Tom’s Progress

  XXXI - The Recognition Procession

  XXXII - Coronation Day

  XXXIII - Edward as King








  In the ancient city of London, on a certain autumn day in the second quarter of the sixteenth century, a boy was born to a poor family of the name of Canty, who did not want him. On the same day another English child was born to a rich family of the name of Tudor, who did want him. All England wanted him too. (page 11)

  “When I am king, they shall not have bread and shelter only, but also teachings out of books; for a full belly is little worth where the mind is starved, and the heart.” (page 27)

  “And so I am become a knight of the Kingdom of Dreams and Shadows!” (page 76)

  “In truth, being a king is not all dreariness—it hath its compensations and conveniences.” (page 94)

  Pleasant thoughts came at once; life took on a cheerfuler seeming. He was free of the bonds of servitude and crime, free of the companionship of base and brutal outlaws; he was warm, he was sheltered; in a word, he was happy. (page 123)

  The boy was filled with generous indignation, and commanded her to go to her closet, and beseech God to take away the stone that was in her breast, and give her a human heart. (page 180)

  “What dost thou know of suffering and oppression? I and my people know, but not thou.” (page 210)

  Published by Barnes & Noble Books

  122 Fifth Avenue

  New York, NY 10011

  The Prince and the Pauper was first published in 1881.

  Published in 2004 by Barnes & Noble Classics with new Introduction,

  Notes, Biography, Chronology, Inspired by, Comments & Questions,

  and For Further Reading.

  Introduction, Notes, and For Further Reading

  Copyright © 2004 by Robert Tine.

  Note on Mark Twain, The World of Mark Twain and The Prince and the Pauper,

  Inspired by The Prince and the Pauper, and Comments & Questions

  Copyright © 2004 by Barnes & Noble, Inc.

  All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

  Barnes & Noble Classics and the Barnes & Noble Classics colophon are trademarks of Barnes & Noble, Inc.

  The Prince and the Pauper

  ISBN-13: 978-1-59308-218-5 ISBN-10: 1-59308-218-5

  eISBN : 978-1-411-43297-0

  LC Control Number 2004107220

  Produced and published in conjunction with

  Fine Creative Media, Inc.

  322 Eighth Avenue

  New York, NY 10001

  Michael J. Fine, President and Publisher

  Printed in the United States of America


  5 7 9 10 8 6 4


  Mark Twain was born Samuel Langhorne Clemens on November 30, 1835. When Sam was four years old, his family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, a small town later immortalized in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. After the death of his father, twelve-year-old Sam quit school and supported his family by working as a delivery boy, a grocer’s clerk, and an assistant blacksmith until he was thirteen, when he became an apprentice printer. He worked for several newspapers, traveled throughout the country, and established himself as a gifted writer of humorous sketches. Abandoning journalism at points to work as a riverboat pilot, Clemens adventured up and down the Mississippi, learning the 1,200 miles of the river.

  During the 1860s he spent time in the West, in newspaper work and panning for gold, and traveled to Europe and the Holy Land; The Innocents Abroad (1869) and Roughing It (1872) are accounts of those experiences. In 1863 Samuel Clemens adopted a pen name, signing a sketch as “Mark Twain,” and in 1867 Mark Twain won fame with publication of a collection of humorous writings, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County and Other Sketches. After marrying and settling in Connecticut, Twain wrote his best-loved works: the novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, and the nonfiction work Life on the Mississippi. Meanwhile, he continued to travel and had a successful career as a public lecturer.

  In his later years, Twain saw the world with increasing pessimism following the death of his wife and two of their three daughters. The tone of his later novels, including The Tragedy of Pudd‘nhead Wilson and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court, became cynical and dark. Having failed as a publisher and suffering losses from ill-advised investments, Twain was forced by financial necessity to maintain a heavy schedule of lecturing. Though he had left school at an early age, his genius was recognized by Yale University, the University of Missouri, and Oxford University in the form of honorary doctorate degrees. He died in his Connecticut mansion, Stormfield, on April 21, 1910.


  1835 Samuel Langhorne Clemens is born prematurely in Florida, Missouri, the fourth child of John Marshall Clemens and Jane Lampton Clemens.

  1839 The family moves to Hannibal, the small Missouri town on the west bank of the Mississippi River that will become the model for the setting of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn.

  1840 American newspapers gain increased readership as urban populations swell and printing technology improves.

  1847 John Clemens dies, leaving the family in financial difficulty. Sam quits school at the age of twelve.

  1848 Sam becomes a full-time apprentice to Joseph Ament of the Missouri Courier.

  1850 Sam’s brother Orion, ten years his senior, returns to Hannibal and establishes the Journal; he hires Sam as a compositor. Steamboats become the primary means of transport
on the Mississippi River.

  1852 Sam edits the failing Journal while Orion is away. After he reads local humor published in newspapers in New England and the Southwest, Sam begins printing his own humorous sketches in the Journal. He submits “The Dandy Frightening the Squatter” to the Carpet-Bag of Boston, which publishes the sketch in the May issue.

  1853 Sam leaves Hannibal and begins working as an itinerant printer; he visits St. Louis, New York, and Philadelphia. His brothers Orion and Henry move to Iowa with their mother.

  1854 Transcendentalism flourishes in American literary culture; Henry David Thoreau publishes Walden.

  1855 Sam works again as a printer with Orion in Keokuk, Iowa.

  1856 Sam acquires a commission from Keokuk’s Daily Post to write humorous letters; he decides to travel to South America.

  1857 Sam takes a steamer to New Orleans, where he hopes to find a ship bound for South America. Instead, he signs on as an apprentice to river pilot Horace Bixby and spends the next two years learning how to navigate a steamship up and down the Mississippi. His experiences become material for Life on the Mississippi and his tales of Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn.

  1858 Sam’s brother Henry dies in a steamboat accident.

  1859 Samuel Clemens becomes a fully licensed river pilot.

  1861 The American Civil War erupts, putting an abrupt stop to river trade between North and South. Sam serves with a Confederate militia for two weeks before venturing to the Nevada Territory with Orion, who had been appointed by President Abraham Lincoln as secretary of the new Territory.

  1862 After an unsuccessful stint as a miner and prospector for gold and silver, Clemens begins reporting for the Territorial Enterprise in Virginia City, Nevada.

  1863 Clemens signs his name as “Mark Twain” on a humorous travel sketch printed in the Territorial Enterprise. The pseudonym, a riverboat term meaning “two fathoms deep,” connotes barely navigable water.

  1864 After challenging his editor to a duel, Twain is forced to leave Nevada and lands a job with a San Francisco newspaper. He meets Artemus Ward, a popular humorist, whose techniques greatly influence Twain’s writing.

  1865 Robert E. Lee’s army surrenders, ending the Civil War. While prospecting for gold in Calaveras County, California, Twain hears a tale he uses for a story that makes him famous; originally titled “Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog,” it is published in New York’s Saturday Press.

  1866 Twain travels to Hawaii as a correspondent for the Sacramento Union; upon his return to California, he delivers his first public lecture, beginning a successful career as a humorous speaker.

  1867 Twain travels to New York, and then to Europe and the

  Holy Land aboard the steamer Quaker City; during five months abroad, he contributes to California’s largest paper, Sacramento’s Alta California, and writes several letters for the New York Tribune. He publishes a volume of stories and sketches, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County and Other Sketches.

  1868 Twain meets and falls in love with Olivia (Livy) Langdon. His overseas writings have increased his popularity; he signs his first book contract and begins The Innocents Abroad, sketches based on his trip to the Holy Land. He embarks on a lecture tour of the American Midwest.

  1869 Twain becomes engaged to Livy, who acts as his editor from that time on. The Innocents Abroad, published as a subscription book, is an instant success, selling nearly 100,000 copies in the first three years.

  1870 Twain and Livy marry. Their son, Langdon, is born; he lives only two years.

  1871 The Clemens move to Hartford, Connecticut.

  1872 Roughing It, an account of Twain’s adventures out West, is published to enormous success. The first of Twain’s three daughters, Susie, is born. Twain strikes up a lifelong friendship with the writer William Dean Howells.

  1873 Ever the entrepreneur, Twain receives the patent for Mark Twain’s Self-Pasting Scrapbook, an invention that is a commercial success. He publishes The Gilded Age, a collaboration with his neighbor Charles Dudley Warner that satirizes the post-Civil War era.

  1874 His daughter Clara is born. The family moves into a mansion in Hartford in which they will live for the next seventeen years.

  1876 The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is published.

  1877 Twain collaborates with Bret Harte—an author known for his use of local color and humor and for his parodies of Cooper, Dickens, and Hugo—to produce the play Ah Sin.

  1880 Twain invests in the Paige typesetter and loses thousands of dollars. He publishes A Tramp Abroad, an account of his travels in Europe the two previous years. His daughter Jean is born.

  1881 The Prince and the Pauper, Twain’s first historical romance, is published.

  1882 Twain plans to write about the Mississippi River and makes the trip from New Orleans to Minnesota to refresh his memory.

  1883 The nonfiction work Life on the Mississippi is published.

  1884 Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, a book Twain worked on for nearly ten years, is published in England; publication in the United States is delayed until the following year because an illustration plate is judged to be obscene.

  1885 When Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is published in America—by Twain’s ill-fated publishing house, run by his nephew Charles Webster—controversy immediately surrounds the book. Twain also publishes the memoirs of his friend former President Ulysses S. Grant.

  1888 He receives an honorary Master of Arts degree from Yale University.

  1889 He publishes A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court, the first of his major works to be informed by a deep pessimism. He meets Rudyard Kipling, who had come to America to meet Twain, in Livy’s hometown of Elmira, New York.

  1890 Twain’s mother dies.

  1891 Financial difficulties force the Clemens family to close their Hartford mansion; they move to Berlin, Germany.

  1894 Twain publishes The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson, a dark novel about the aftermath of slavery, which sells well, and Tom Sawyer Abroad, which does not. Twain’s publishing company fails and leaves him bankrupt.

  1895 Twain embarks on an ambitious worldwide lecture tour to restore his financial position.

  1896 He publishes Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc and Tom Sawyer, Detective. His daughter Susie dies of spinal meningitis.

  1901 Twain is awarded an honorary doctorate degree from Yale.

  1902 Livy falls gravely ill. Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn, a stage adaptation of the novel, opens to favorable reviews. Though he is credited with coauthorship, Twain has little to do with

  1903 the play and never sees it performed. He receives an honorary doctorate degree from the University of Missouri. Hoping to restore Livy’s health, Twain takes her to Florence, Italy.

  1904 Livy dies, leaving Twain devastated. He begins dictating an uneven autobiography that he never finishes.

  1905 Theodore Roosevelt invites Twain to the White House. Twain enjoys a gala celebrating his seventieth birthday in New York. He continues to lecture, and he addresses Congress on copyright issues.

  1906 Twain’s biographer Albert Bigelow Paine moves in with the family.

  1907 Twain travels to Oxford University to receive an honorary Doctor of Letters degree.

  1908 He settles in Redding, Connecticut, at Stormfield, the mansion that is his final home.

  1909 Twain’s daughter Clara marries; the author dons his Oxford robe for the ceremony. His daughter Jean dies.

  1910 Twain travels to Bermuda for his health. He develops heart problems and, upon his return to Stormfield, dies, leaving behind a cache of unpublished work.


  Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on November 30,1835, in the tiny Missouri town of Florida. It was only some years later, when Sam was four, that the family moved to the town Sam Clemens as Mark Twain would one day make famous—Hannibal, Missouri. In the 1830s and ’40s Hannibal was not too far from being the very edge of American civilization—if it was not the frontier, it was
very close to it. There was certainly nothing in this hardscrabble town on the banks of the Mississippi River that suggested it would one day produce one of the greatest American writers of all time. It is even stranger to think that a man from a rural Missouri town would one day write a novel detailing the grandeur and the squalor of Tudor England. Yet by the time Sam Clemens, from Hannibal, became Mark Twain, world-famous author and friend to the rich and powerful, he was more than ready to write such a novel. Not only that, he relished the writing of it and counted it among his finest works.

  Mark Twain summarized the action of The Prince and the Pauper thusly:

  It begins at 9am, January 27th, 1547, seventeen and a half hours before the death of Henry the Eighth and involves the swapping of clothes and places, between the prince of Wales and a pauper boy of the same age and countenance (and half as much learning and still more genius and imagination) and after that the rightful small king has a rough time among the tramps and ruffians in the country parts of Kent, while the small bogus king has a gilded and worshipped and dreary and restrained and cussed time of it on the throne ... (Twain, M. The Prince and the Pauper, introduction by V. Fischer, Berkeley, CA: The Mark Twain Project of the Bancroft Library, 1983, p. xv.)

  That paragraph was written sometime in the middle to late 1870s, following the publication of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and during the writing of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The plot sounds like vintage Twain: a story ripe with opportunities for humor, misunderstanding, high farce, and low cunning. But while The Prince and the Pauper certainly contains elements of those characteristics, Twain’s readers were to be surprised when the book was finally published. The Prince and the Pauper would, in many ways, be unlike any book Mark Twain had published to date.