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The Annotated Mansfield Park

Jane Austen

  Annotations to the Front Cover

  1. This novel centers around Mansfield Park, a grand country house similar to the one in this painting. Such houses were a prominent feature of the English countryside, and their denizens were in the highest echelons of society and politics. The face of this house, Wentworth Woodhouse in Yorkshire, displays the classical style of architecture, most notably in its prominent columns and strict symmetry, that dominated country-house construction in the century preceding this novel. Mansfield Park, described at one point as a “spacious modern-built house,” would look similar.

  This picture comes from the book Picturesque Views of Seats of Nobleman and Gentlemen of Great Britain and Ireland, published later in the nineteenth century. Books that displayed hundreds of engraved pictures of houses in their many volumes were popular in Jane Austen’s time, and a character in the novel reflects that Mansfield Park deserves to be in such a collection.

  2. The same character describes Mansfield Park as being “well screened,” referring to a line of trees on one side of the house akin to the one seen here. Such screens of trees were often planted to provide an attractive frame for the house when seen at a distance and to block unsightly views from the house.

  3. An important episode in the novel involves a visit to another grand house, Sotherton Court. It is described as having “spacious stone steps before the principal entrance” as well as numerous windows for its many rooms, both common features of grand houses displayed prominently in this picture.

  4. A large park around the house, such as is suggested here, was a basic element of country houses and the reason why many had “Park” in their name. These parks provided privacy and recreation for the inhabitants while also enhancing the house’s appearance and demonstrating the wealth and taste of the owner. The deer depicted here were a frequent feature of these parks. The conversion of most of England to farmland had made deer relatively rare, and being able to set aside a large enough tract of land to support a deer population, valued both for aesthetic appeal and for food, was a sign of great wealth. Venison, treasured for this reason as a special delicacy, is mentioned as a regular part of dinner fare at Mansfield Park.


  The Annotated Northanger Abbey

  The Annotated Pride and Prejudice

  The Annotated Persuasion

  The Annotated Sense and Sensibility

  The Annotated Emma

  The Annotated


  Annotated and Edited by


  David M. Shapard is the author of The Annotated Northanger Abbey, The Annotated Pride and Prejudice, The Annotated Persuasion, The Annotated Sense and Sensibility, and The Annotated Emma. He graduated with a Ph.D. in European history from the University of California, Berkeley; his specialty was the eighteenth century. Since then he has taught at several colleges. He lives in upstate New York.

  A young woman reading.

  [From The Repository of arts, literature, fashions, manufactures, &c, Vol. VI (1811), p. 177]


  Copyright © 2017 by David M. Shapard

  All rights reserved. Published in the United States by Anchor Books, a division of Penguin Random House LLC, New York, and distributed in Canada by Random House of Canada, a division of Penguin Random House Canada Limited, Toronto.

  Anchor Books and colophon are registered trademarks of Penguin Random House LLC.

  Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

  Names: Austen, Jane, 1775–1817, author. | Shapard, David M., editor.

  Title: The annotated Mansfield Park / by Jane Austen; annotated and edited, with an introduction, by David M. Shapard.

  Other titles: Mansfield Park

  Description: New York : Anchor Books, 2017. | Includes bibliographical references.

  Identifiers: LCCN 2016030298 (print) | LCCN 2016032272 (ebook)

  Subjects: LCSH: Austen, Jane, 1775–1817. Mansfield Park. | Young women—England—Fiction. | Country homes—England—Fiction. | Children of the rich—Fiction. | Social classes—Fiction. | Cousins—Fiction. | England—Social life and customs—19th century—Fiction. | Domestic fiction. | BISAC: FICTION / Literary. | GSAFD: Love stories.

  Classification: LCC PR4034.M3 2017b (print) | LCC PR4034 (ebook) | DDC 823/.7—dc23

  LC record available at​2016030298

  Maps by Robert Bull

  Anchor Books Trade Paperback ISBN 9780307390790

  Ebook ISBN 9780307950253

  Cover design: Megan Wilson

  Cover illustration: Wentworth Woodhouse by Alexander Francis Lydon © Look and Learn/Bridgeman Images





  Annotations to the Front Cover

  Also by David M. Shapard

  About the Author


  Title Page



  Notes to the Reader

  Note on the Text of the Novel





  (Note: The following chapter headings are not found in the novel. They are added here by the editor to assist the reader.)

  I The Decision to Adopt Fanny Price

  II Fanny’s Arrival at Mansfield Park

  III The Departure of Sir Thomas

  IV The Arrival of the Crawfords

  V The Bertrams and the Crawfords

  VI The Discussion of Mr. Rushworth’s Improvements

  VII Edmund and Mary Crawford

  VIII Plans to Visit Sotherton

  IX The Tour of Sotherton House

  X The Exploration of Sotherton Grounds

  XI The Announcement of Sir Thomas’s Return

  XII A Dance at Mansfield Park

  XIII The Idea of Performing a Play

  XIV The Decision to Perform Lovers’ Vows

  XV Edmund’s Attempt to Stop the Play

  XVI Edmund Joins the Play

  XVII Julia’s Jealousy of Maria

  XVIII Final Rehearsals for the Play


  I Sir Thomas’s Return

  II Sir Thomas Closes Down the Play

  III The Marriage of Maria and Mr. Rushworth

  IV Fanny’s Intimacy with Mary Crawford

  V Fanny’s Dinner at the Grants’

  VI Henry’s Plan to Attract Fanny

  VII Large Dinner Party at the Grants’

  VIII Plans for a Ball at Mansfield Park

  IX Fanny’s Preparations for the Ball

  X The Ball

  XI The Departure of Henry and Edmund

  XII Henry’s Decision to Propose

  XIII Henry’s Proposal


  I Sir Thomas’s Conference with Fanny

  II Henry Crawford’s Persistence in His Suit

  III The Discussion of Shakespeare and Preaching

  IV Edmund’s Talk with Fanny

  V Mary Crawford’s Visit to Fanny

  VI The Decision to Send Fanny to Portsmouth

  VII The Arrival at Portsmouth

  VIII Fanny’s Reaction to Her Family

  IX Fanny’s Friendship with Susan

  X The Visit of Henry Crawford

  XI The Departure of Henry Crawford

  XII Letter from Mary Crawford

  XIII Letter from Edmund

  XIV Tom Bertram’s Illness

  XV Scandalous News and Fanny’s Return

  XVI Aftermath of the Scandal

II Conclusion







  A Young Woman Reading

  A Grand Country House

  A Barrister

  A General

  Steventon Rectory

  The West India Docks

  East India House

  A Panorama of London

  A Public Coach

  A Sofa

  Three Children

  A Modern House

  A Needlework Pattern

  A Private Library

  A Park Next to a Grand House

  A Woman with a Sash

  A Naval Squadron in Battle

  A Map of the West Indies


  A House in an Elevated Position


  A View over Landscaped Grounds

  An Older House

  A House Amidst Trees

  Landscaped Grounds with Water

  An Elegant Cottage

  An Apricot Tree

  A Barouche

  An Approach to a Grand House

  Playing the Harp

  A Woman at an Embroidery Frame

  French Windows

  A House Screened by Trees

  A Sofa

  A Flower Garden

  A Riding Habit

  A Parsonage

  A Woman with a Parasol and a Veil

  A Chaise

  Salisbury Cathedral

  A Humble Cottage

  An Entrance Gate to an Estate

  A Park Lodge

  A Curricle

  An Interior with Marble

  A Garden with Walls

  An Interior with Elaborate Carvings

  Preaching a Sermon

  A Ha-Ha

  The Layout of a Park

  A Sloping Landscape

  Elaborate Landscaped Grounds

  A Path Amidst Trees

  A Dairymaid

  A Family Gathered Around a Pianoforte

  An Army Officer

  A Woman Looking at Sheet Music

  Shooting a Pheasant

  A Gamekeeper

  Playing Whist

  Dance Steps

  A House with Large Stone Steps

  Drury Lane Theatre

  Covent Garden Theatre

  Playing Billiards

  Men Gambling

  An Ordinary Soldier

  Men in Shooting Dress

  A Lord or Peer

  A Woman in Evening Dress

  A Grand Drawing Room

  Tea Tables

  A Poor Woman

  A Woman in a Mobcap


  A Mantelpiece


  A View on the River Wye

  Derwent Water, the Lake District

  A Woman with a Book

  A Baron

  A Woman in Morning Dress

  The House of Commons

  The Speaker of the House of Commons

  Daytime Dress

  The Interior of a Theater

  A Woman at Needlework

  A Fire Grate

  A Drawing Room

  A Portrait of a Young Woman

  Liverpool Harbor

  A Mantelpiece

  Pheasant Shooting


  An Interior with Stucco

  Reading by Candlelight

  A Man in Evening Dress

  Grounds with Plantations

  A Chaise with a Driver on Horseback

  Milsom Street, Bath

  A Pianoforte

  A Wedding Dress

  A Chariot


  Brighton Seaside

  A Woman in Walking Dress

  A Party with a Woman Playing a Harp

  A Lady with Poultry

  A Sheltered Bench in a Garden

  A View of a Rural Village

  St. Paul’s Cathedral

  A Letter of Jane Austen’s

  A Woman in a Muslin Dress

  A White Gown with Decorative Spots

  Fox Hunting

  A Hunter Jumping over a Stream

  A Sailor and a Midshipman

  A Hairstyle of the Time

  A Rural Village

  A View over Grounds with a Stream

  A Hunter Racing Across a Field

  The Admiralty Board

  A Farmyard


  Chawton Cottage

  A Bishop

  A Clothing Store

  A Woman Outdoors

  A Woman in Evening Dress

  A Woman with a Letter

  A Posting Inn

  A Mail Coach


  Snipe Shooting

  A Lady’s Maid and Her Mistress

  Dance Positions

  A Woman in Ball Dress

  A Woman Dancing

  A Ballroom

  A Lady with a Fan

  A Fan

  Ball Dress

  “The Lady of Branxholm Hall”

  A Cup and Saucer

  Drinking Tea

  A Hot Water Jug, a Creamer, and a Teapot

  A Pianoforte and a Harp

  A Village Road

  A House with a Sweep

  Walking Dress

  An Admiral

  A Woman with Curled Hair

  Grosvenor Square, London

  Naval Officers Dining

  A Grand Staircase

  A Woman Writing

  Two Frigates

  A Woman in a Shawl

  A Woman in Morning Dress

  A Woman in Evening Dress

  A Woman in Walking Dress

  A Portrait of an Aristocratic Man

  A Portrait of a Young Woman

  A Woman Holding a Book

  A Dining Room

  Reading Aloud

  A Church Service

  Selling a Horse

  A Clergyman Receiving Tithes

  A London Church

  Drinking Tea

  A Man in Daytime Dress

  A Woman Out for a Walk

  A Morning Room

  A Portrait of an Aristocratic Woman

  Admiral Nelson

  A Luxurious Drawing Room

  A Luxurious Interior

  A Woman in Carriage Dress

  All Souls College, Oxford

  A Naval Battle

  A Naval Ship with Boats

  Southampton High Street

  A Mother with Children

  A Sailor

  Posting a Letter

  A Fashionable London Interior

  A Grand London House

  Cavendish Square, London

  A Woman in a Pelisse

  A Bookstore

  A Postman

  Portsmouth Point

  Ships of the Line

  A Cottage and Its Inhabitants

  A Gentleman’s Charity to the Poor

  A Lady Giving Money to the Poor

  A Poor Man in a Cottage

  An Inn in Town

  St. George’s, Hanover Square

  A Lady at the Seaside

  A Woman Leaving a Bookshop

  A Woman Holding a Letter

  Bath Pump Room, Interior

  Bath Pump Room, Exterior

  A Man with Gout

  Weighing a Horse

  The College of Physicians

  The Discomforts of Travel

  Queen Square, Bloomsbury

  A Grand Villa near London

  A Woman with a Letter

  A Mail Coach

  A Bonnet and a Hat

  Oxford High Street

  A House with Large Windows

  A House with a Large Park

  Landscaped Grounds on an Estate

  A Portrait of a Woman

  A Lady in Church

  A Mansion at Twickenham

  A Clergyman

  Evening Dress

  The Court of Ki
ng’s Bench

  Westminster Abbey, Exterior

  Westminster Abbey, Interior

  A Marriage Ceremony

  A Visit to a New Mother

  Notes to the Reader

  Literary interpretations: Comments on the techniques and themes of the novel, more than other types of entries, represent the personal views and interpretations of the editor. Such views have been carefully considered, but inevitably they will provoke disagreement among some readers. I can only hope that even in those cases the opinions expressed provide useful food for thought.

  Differences of meaning: Many words in Jane Austen’s era, like many words now, had multiple meanings. The meaning of a word that is given at any particular place is intended only to apply to the way the word is used there; it does not represent a complete definition of the word in the language of the time. Thus some words are defined differently at different points, while many words are defined only in certain places, since in other places they are used in ways that remain familiar today.

  Repetitions: This book has been designed so it can be used as a reference. For this reason many entries refer the reader to other pages where more complete information about a topic exists. This, however, is not practical for definitions of words, so in some cases definitions are repeated at appropriate points.

  Note on the Text of the Novel

  Two editions of Mansfield Park appeared during Jane Austen’s lifetime: the first in 1814 and the second in 1816. A letter of hers to her publisher (dated December 11, 1815) indicates that she herself made corrections to the second edition. The most significant correction concerns a speech of Mr. Price’s containing naval matters (see this page and this page, note 42). Other changes mostly involve punctuation, as well as in a few cases the alteration, omission, or addition of specific words. It cannot be known how many of these smaller changes were initiated by Austen herself, for printers often revised spelling and punctuation on their own (for more, see this page, note 32). Printers also made mistakes in typesetting, something seen in all contemporary editions of Austen’s novels. For these reasons, and due to the lack of any original manuscripts of the novels, there can never be certainty as to what Austen herself intended to write.

  This edition of Mansfield Park adopts the usual practice of relying on the 1816 edition, since it is clear that at least some of the differences between it and the earlier edition are due to Austen’s own choices. It follows the 1816 text as closely as possible, altering it only in a small number of cases, mostly involving punctuation, where it seems clearly wrong.